This lecture studies the emergence of the mound and plaza cultures beginning around 3,000 BCE in the lower Mississippi River area. It discusses Poverty Point and brings the student up to the Hopewell Culture in Ohio, a culture that thrived almost exclusively on the ceremonial exchanges. We then focus on northern Peru. First will be the site of la Galgada, an early ceremonial center where irrigation systems were first developed in this area. We then move to the cultures of the Supe Valley and the ceremonial spaces of Caral, a novel economic engine in the area focused on the cultivation of cotton.
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